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Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 3
1. INTRODUCTION 3
1.1. Explication of Extramarital Affairs 3
1.1. Background of the study 3
1.2. Extramarital affairs and marriage 3
1.3. Perspective of extramarital affairs in Pakistani Society 4
1.4. Statement of the problem 4
1.5. Objectives of the Study 4
1.6. Research Questions 4
1.7. Hypotheses 4
1.8. Significance of the study 5
1.9. Delimitations 5
CHAPTER 2 6
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1. Extramarital affairs 6
2.2. Various Types and Manifestations of Extramarital Affairs 6
2.3. Factors Accounting for Extramarital Affairs 6
2.4. Marital Dissatisfaction 7
2.5. Psychological Factors 7
2.6. Socioeconomic Factors 7
2.7. Age related Factors 7
2.8. Gender and Extramarital Affairs 7
2.9. Span of Marriage and Extramarital Affairs 8
2.10. Marriage: Form of legitimate relationship 8
2.11. Islamic concept of marriage: 9
2.12. Family and family structure 9
2.13. Family disruption: (Familial Pandemonium) 9
CHAPTER 3 10
3. METHODOLOGY 10
3.1. Design of study: 10
3.2. Area of Population: 10
3.3. Sample and Sampling Technique 10
3.4. Instrument for Data collection: 11
3.5. Validity of instrument: 11
3.6. Reliability of the Instrument: 11
3.7. Methods of data collection: 11
3.8. Analysis of the data 11
CHAPTER 4 11
4. DATA ANALYSIS 11
4.1. Findings 17
4.2. Discussion 17
4.3. CONCLUSION 18
Marriage is a sacred bond and covenantal commitment. Unfaithfulness and perversity to it are unpardonable sins according to Islamic orthodoxy and jurisprudence. The extramarital relationship is proving devastating to this legitimate and committed relationship. The researcher was inquisitive: why do married people fall a prey to extramarital affairs? Could it not be that spouses are deficient in some concomitant and compelling urges in the marital relationship, they seek to appease from external sources, transgressing the marital boundaries? Are such pernicious activities in vogue in our Islamic Society? Are these practices not a blatant renunciation to God’s commandments? Keeping in view all these staggering matters of concern, this study was conducted.
The main objectives of this study were to explore the manifestations of extramarital affairs, the factors accounting for extramarital affairs and their influences on the family. For this purpose, a correlational study design was selected and followed; since, for the investigation of the influences of extramarital affairs on the family functionality, the determination of the relationship between these two variables was considered a necessity. The sample of the study consisted of 120 well-educated respondents of both sexes belonging to three different professions.
The data were collected by administering five points Likert Scale questionnaire; titled: Extramarital Affairs and Family Disruption Questionnaire (EAFDQ). Two experts, belonging to Sociology Department UoP Lahore, face validated it. To check its internal consistency Cronbach Alpha reliability test was utilized and the value of the coefficient obtained was 0.831. To achieve the objectives of the study, three questions and three null hypotheses were formulated. The questions were analyzed comparing the means and standard deviations and using Pearson Correlation Analysis. The null hypotheses were examined through ANOVA and two stages Least Squares Regression Analysis. The major findings of the study showed that various types of extramarital affairs might occur among married couples. The study construed that EMA exerted diverse disruptive effects on the matrimonial relations and family set up since there was a straight positive relationship between the independent variable of the types of EMA and the dependent variable of family disruption. The study also proved that sinful activities of EMA were being performed even in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan where such practices were considered a flagrant disobedience to God’s commandments and established bounds of permissible sexual behavior.
Keywords: Covenantal commitment, Perversity, Orthodoxy, Jurisprudence, Extramarital affairs, Legitimate, Committed relations, Concomitant, Transgressing, Manifestations, Family functionality, Disruption
1.1. Explication of Extramarital Affairs
Illicit relationship of one of the spouses outside the marriage without any regard of societal norms, cultural boundaries, and religious sanctions is called extra material affair. Extra material affairs may be defined as an emotional, romantic or sexual relationship between a married person and someone else other than the person’s spouse. Simply a lustful, emotional or romantic attachment of wedded couples out of the martial boundaries is called extra material affair(Martin, 1989). Marriage is religiously, socially and legally accepted and endorsed relationship between men and women. Each marriage partner is placed under a social constraint so that he or she may not go beyond the normative boundaries of acceptable sexual, emotional or romantic behavior.Indulgence of a married person in extramarital affairs is said to be the extreme type of infidelity to his or her legal partner and this infidelity may prove destructive to matrimony and may cause to break the relationship(Chang, 1999).
1.1. Background of the study
From the very beginning, every society has its traditions and conventions to practice. More or less every society follows a certain religion and abides by its laws and principles. In Pakistani perspective moral standards, norms and values have their structures based on universal Islamic principles and commandments. According to Islamic jurisprudence which has its roots embedded in two sources of knowledge, i.e.
The Quran and Hadith; any kind of sexual relationship of man and woman out of Islamic marriage is strictly prohibited and considered an unpardonable sin. Therefore married couples have their rights, responsibilities and marital sanctions and are not allowed at all, to transgress the boundaries established in accordance with the ruling of Islam(Ali, 2015). The extramarital affairs cause family disruption, social deterioration, and termagancy on the earth. Notwithstanding, contemporary society is plagued and disrupted with marital problems and one of the major causes of these problems is extramarital involvement or unfaithfulness to one’s spouse. A considerable number of marriage partners deviate from established religious norms and cross the bounds of marriages for their sexual appeasement. The outcomes of the extramarital affairs are oftentimes devastating. Extramarital affairs or infidelity proves damaging to the blissful matrimonial union and disruptive to family set up. It can also impact the children negatively and impedes their learning progress putting them into mental distress(Chachuła, Kucharski, Lubaś, Małachowska, & Martinovski, 2009).
1.2. Extramarital affairs and marriage
Extramarital affairs impact adversely the legitimate relationship functioning and the stability of marriages. The involvement of any marriage partner beyond matrimonial relation is called a heinous type of unfaithfulness and it cannot only affect the family and the faithful spouse but also the cheater. Extramarital affairs are synonymous to infidelity which may be categorized as sexual, emotional infidelity. To avoid infidelity and to achieve success in spousal relations for the well-being of the individuals concerned and society is a much more difficult task than it seems. Therefore marriage persistently needs for adjustment and compromise as the relationships may either exert positive or negative impacts on the mental and social wellbeing of husband and wife. Society and culture determine the duties and rights associated with the institution of marriage to make sure that the children born into the family are well fed, brought up and protected.
The discovery or disclosure of extramarital affairs often leads to emotional havoc, problematic matrimonial affinity and create a cataclysmic situation for the spouses’ children and family. Reports of extramarital affairs and divorces are on the increase. Extramarital affairs have been linked with increased risk of divorces, mental health problem including depression and anxiety. There are so many reprehensible factors which may trigger extramarital affairs of various types. Likewise, there are numerous causes’ related factors and sexuality-related factors. The consequences of extramarital affairs are more heinous than may deem. Not only the betrayer but also the betrayed, children and the whole family have to experience destructive impacts of extramarital affairs such as rising domestic violence crooked social image, vulnerability to STI’S vengeance, children’s distrust and segregation. The extramarital affair is a sensitive topic and as such, may be influenced by sociocultural contexts and specific factors as mentioned above. There is a need to pay attention to the forms, causes, and impacts of extramarital affairs and their subsequent damaging consequences for the individuals as well as for the society(Fan & Lui, 2004).
1.3. The perspective of extramarital affairs in Pakistani Society
In Pakistan is one of the countries where conservative and (Islamic) religious society is existing, infidelity in men specifically in women is not tolerate and accepted even then EMA Is on the increases mostly due to the modern social media nightclubs, strip clubs and brothels are being run by modern pimps in big and small cities and are visited by married and unmarried people alike EMA in Pakistani society. IN Islamic society the sacred book the Holy Quran is frequently recited. Many a sacred text has prohibited premarital and extramarital sexual involvements. For the Muslims, religiosity and social functionality with the true Muslims must enhance exposition to religiously motivated rules that dismay premarital and extramarital sexuality. But in Pakistani contemporary society, religious participation and informal interaction with other Muslims have decreased tremendously and exposure to liberal gathering has increased remarkably. Therefor obnoxious behaviors such as extramarital and premarital sex are penetrating into Pakistani society almost at every level (Suhail, 2003).
1.4. Statement of the problem
This study is meant to explore the factors accounting for extramarital affairs, their manifestations and their impacts on matrimonial life and family. There may be various causes, manifestations, and impacts of extramarital involvement of spouses. The main motive behind the study is to determine the relationship between the extramarital affairs and disruption of the family where such pernicious types of relationship exist.
It is harrowing to know about that married people’s involvement in extramarital affairs even when they are aware of its deteriorating impacts on their mental and physical health and on their children’s behavior and on their families and on their image in the society at large. The researcher was inquisitive: why do married people fall a prey to extramarital affairs? Could it not be that spouses are deficient in some concomitant and compelling urges in the marital relationship, they solicit to pacify from external sources, transgressing the marital boundaries? Keeping in view all these matters of concern this study was conducted.
1.5. Objectives of the Study
This study consists of the flowing objectives which are to be obtained to prove the proposition:
1: To find out the types of EMA prevailing among the married people study area of the city Multan.
2: To explore the factors that may trigger EMA among the married people of the study area.
3: To examine the impacts of EMA on the family as a whole by determining the relationship between the two.
1.6. Research Questions
The following research questions were structured for the orientation of the study
Q- 1: What types and manifestations of extra-marital affairs do occur among married couples?
Q -2: what are the factors responsible for extramarital affairs among the spouses?
Q -3: what are the impacts of extra-marital affairs of spouses on them, children and family as a whole?
The following null hypotheses were formulated for the right dimensions of study
H01: There are no significant differences between the main ratings of male and female respondents on the types or manifestations of extramarital affairs happen among the spouses.
H02: There are no significant differences between the mean ratings of respondents on the manifestations of EMA by spouses on the base of the span of married life
H03: There is no significant relationship between EMA and family disruption i.e. (Extramarital affairs and their impacts on spouses, children, and family)
1.8. The significance of the study
The study is of theoretical as well as of practical significance. In regard to theoretical significance, this study is guided by Abraham Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs structure. Every member of the family needs security shelter, provision love, and recognition. Maslow places sex as one of the basic physiological needs. It follows that sex direly needs by man and women and sexual desire must be met. Most of the married people turn to sexual variety for their sexual need and get involved in extramarital affairs as regards the practical significance, the finding of the study would be beneficial to spouses, religious exponents the new researcher, syllabus designers, social worker NGOs, and social scholars. The result of the study would be a valuable addition to the body of knowledge.
This study was delimited to the urban areas of tehsil and district Multan of the Punjab province. The target population consisted of highly educated 600 married men and women belonging to education, law and medical profession
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Extramarital affairs
A relationship of married men and women out of the marriage, involving emotional and sexual activities in any relationship beyond marriage that includes social, emotional and sexual intimacy is said to be an extra-marital affair. The individual is to be considered engaging in extramarital affairs when they transgress the martial bounds and cheat their spouses for the appeasement of sexual desires. For the individual involving in EMA, there should be evidence of sexual and emotional engagements there should be recognizable sexual chemistry accompanied by convert behavior of sexual liking that is unknown to the partners of the Individual involved in EMA(Atwood & Seifer, 1997).
In every culture, whether it is western, eastern, or Islamic sexuality is a central element in the marital relationship. In most cases, it is sex drive that makes the wedded couples stray. The sexual drive is enhanced by the desire of sexual variety, socioeconomic status, and spousal detachments. In the modern social environment reports of increasing incidents of EMA affecting marriages in every society has to be considered in the context of social, psychological, personal and intra- marital factors contributing to this trend (Thompson, 1983).
There are three persons involved in the EMA and they are a cheater, the cuckold and the betrayed. The sexual relationship outside marriage or extramarital behavior exerts disruptive impacts on the level of intimacy, emotional attachment, sense of acceptance and overall marital balance. (Zitzman & Butler, 2009).
A large number of researches done with American samples proved that men are more likely to involve in sexual infidelity. Men have an extradyadic sexual relationship. Women on the other hand; have more emotional relationships with other than marriage partners. However, they are more concerned about passing negative judgment of other people who are disloyal to their spouses(Fisher et al., 2009)
2.2. Various Types and Manifestations of Extramarital Affairs
c status or income is also to extramarital sex than those who have lower income per annum. In the social context, the sexual opportunities increase at workplace specifically for those individuals who travel out of town for the job requirements.The individuals (married) who live in urban areas at higher risk of involving in EMA than those who live in rural areas since the urban social environment is more condoning and provide greater opportunities. The moreover lesser frequency of sexual activity in marriage and overall inequity in marriage is also strongly linked with greater incidents of EMA(Kuroki, 2013).
2.3. Gender and Extramarital Affairs
In this study, the only dichotomous concept of gender is being taken into consideration or that is to say only anatomically straight men and women are included in the study. The other constructs of gender namely social constructs psychological construct and medical construct of gender are excluded from the study. The reasons behind the selection of straight male and female are that in our country, Pakistan only straight men and women are allowed to marry in accordance with Islamic jurisprudence and culture. No other kind of marriage is permissible in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. However obnoxious practices like extramarital sexuality, sodomy and homosexuality are in vogue though illicitly, covertly and clandestinely. That is why the exact rate of spreading of EMA in every (faction)class of our society is very hard to measure. Likewise foretelling of EMA and sexual satisfaction is multifarious because of gender differences.
Due to gender social interactions, each gender entertains diverse hopes concerning fitting sexual behavior within marriage. According to several socio-cultural theorists, each gender is educated and then urged to trail customary gender rules and roles. (Friedman, Weinberg, & Pines, 1998)Almost in every society including ours, men are supposed to be stronger than women and so they are trained to be incompatible both in physique and sexuality. Sexual indulgence whether legally and religiously is not endorsed or not is strengthened in men and in many societies men are abused and tainted for being emotionally weak or out-bursting.
Women, on the other hand, are admired for being sexually constricted and composed in establishing relationship(Hackathorn, 2011) Women are usually censured for being sexually entangled in a relationship without first being legally, morally and emotionally associated (Paul, Foss, & Baenninger, 1996). So to say, men are thought to be a sexual being and are frequently allowed to be involved in legitimate or illegitimate sexual activities and on the other hand women are anticipated to be more abstinent and generally unblemished and ravished. However, it does not follow that women are not voluptuous and sexual human being but instead are expected to be more sexually restricted than men.
Accordingly, these social prospects and perceptions become the reasons for gender variances in sexuality and sexual satisfaction(Carpenter, Nathanson, & Kim, 2009).Many a former study on gender-based sexual behavior has proved that women show lesser curiosity and inclination in oral sex, masturbation and extramarital involvement than men do.Men express more desire for self – sexual gratification, sexual illusions and more prolong intercourse than women. Men like prolonged coitus to prove sexual dominance over the partners and they mostly have ardent urge to ejaculate after the sexual consummation of legal women partners(Rotundo, Nguyen, & Sackett, 2001).
2.4. The span of Marriage and Extramarital Affairs
The length marriage also plays a remarkable role in increasing the tendency to EMA or infidelity. The longer is the marital relationship the more likelihood of engaging of spouses in infidelity(Previti & Amato, 2004). Among the married women the possibility of involving in EMA is at the peak in the 7th years of marriage, then declines but among married men the likelihood of getting involved in EMA decreases over time, but after eighteen years of married life, chances of EMA increases.Age related factors make great differences in the tendency of spouses towards infidelity(Fisher et al., 2009). Cultural factors also play a vital role in increasing or decreasing the rate of EMA in a society. In most cultures sex in marriage is considered as sacred and sex other than or beyond marriage is thought of as a breach of scared bond and unfaithfulness of a spouses.
One of the reasons of extramarital and risky sexual activities was the span of married life or the length of married life and men were more vulnerable to sexual drives than the women. The chances to be involved in EMA were more from 5 to10 years of marital life.Ill luck it is that existing EMA rate infidelity may occur at any point in a legitimate relationship from new to solid obviously pleasant statistic about EMA suggests that affairs are mostly happening during first two years of marriage.According to another study on infidelity shows that there is more likelihood of unfaithfulness between six and ten years of marital relations women mostly betray during this periods. On the other hand, men mostly cheat from the number of years of marriage should be inversely linked to the risk of EMA on the account of two reasons. Firstly, his investment of time in marital life is of vital importance.
The greater the span of marriage, the bigger the married couple’s investment of precious time in marriage Secondly, in regard to the strong linkage of unfaithfulness with, the faithfulness couple select marriages of long standing. Most of the recent researchers found that the risk of EMA increases with the greater span of marital life (Humphrey, 1987). However, the risk of involvement in EMA decreases for women with increasing martial duration.Men showed a periodical pattern of involving in EMA. Their risk of EMA decreases a lot from 10 to 20th anniversary to the marriage and then begin to increased (Glass & Wright, 1977).
2.5. Marriage: Form of a legitimate relationship
Marriage is a personal relationship between a man and women for mating and reproducing in order to perpetuate and maintain society. This unique kind of sexual relationship is admitted and approved in almost every culture of the world since it has the social, religious, and legal seal of recognition. The institution of marriage is universal just like that of the family which is rather impossible without the marriage. Marriage is indispensable for the survival of human beings. Marriage is biological as well as the moral association of a man and a woman recognized and accepted by society as the base of a family(Wiesner-Hanks, 2014). It may be a sacrament and thus it would be an indissoluble union for this life and the hereafter as in the case of Roman Catholic(Welch & Cahall, 2018). It may be a temporary civil contract for an agreed period of time in the case of Mutta marriages.
Whether it is a sacrament or a civil contract, the relationship is to join the individual of opposite sexes for the reproduction of legitimate progeny. In recent time the institution of marriage is free from many customs, ceremonies and additional expenditure of older times in the scenario of Christian time
T.H. Eriksen (2010), Found out, in his ethnographic atlas of the world communities, that wedding couples are selected between groups, tribes, and communities rather than by individuals. His data show that polyandry happened four times.
It is a rare case of marriage same is true to polygamy, romantic love was seldom seen as an important prerequisite for a good and successful marriage. According to Western mark, marriage is a relation of one or more men and women which is permissible by custom or law and necessitates certain rights and duties, whether the groups enter the union or the individuals sign the deed. Marriage is not just a personal affair. It is not just an institution for sexual needs. It is a social organization of par excellence. It not only provides legitimacy to sexual desires and needs but also proves a sound grounding to the institution of family(Eriksen, Bal, & Salemink, 2010).
2.6. The Islamic concept of marriage:
Marriage is a deed or contract between a man and a woman with the purpose of establishing (initiating) mutually confluence life and procreation. In the Holy Quran, the term Zwaj is used implying a pair or a mate (Muhammad, 2012). The term ‘Nikah’ marriage which is defined as “purposeful committed and persistent conjugal life for obtaining and possessing an enjoyment” The term Nikah has been mentioned in many places in the Holy Quran; such; in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 221, 230, 232 and Surah Nisa verses 322, 325 “Verily marriage and coupling are the laws that God has approved”. Marriage in Islam is entirely religious sacred pledge which makes the sexual intercourse lawful for the procreation of the offsprings. No otherwise kind of sexual relationship is allowed in Islam. (Al-Hibri, 2005).
Islam forcefully advocates marriage (Nikah) and celibacy of any form is strictly prohibited in Islamic social order. Quran says we have created all the things by pairs that haply ye may contemplate (51:49).
“Glorious is He who has created all the sexual pairs, of which the earth grows and of themselves and of what they know not” (36:36).
Permissible sexual relationships (marriage) are mentioned in the Quran and Hadith as great walls of love and intimacy. Islam lays stress on chastity and modesty with regards to any relationship between genders. Islam abhors all types of EMA (Eniola, 2013)
2.7. Family and family structure
The family is based on marriage and is the construct for the perpetuation of society. Family can be defined as a consolidated and operative unit of human society. A family is a group of individuals who have common legal and genetic associations and bonds i.e. set of individuals who share legal and blood relation. A social group having a common house, common economic activities and at least two of the group can have sexual relations legally approved. It may include married couple (at least one) children and other adults of both sexes(Fine man, 1993). The family is the most significant fundamental group and the smallest unit of society. It is rooted in our biological and physical nature. It is universal because human society cannot exist without some form of family construct.A social group consisting of the wedded couple, their children, brothers, sisters of the husband parents and in-laws or other dependents is said to be a family.
Family members interact and communicate with each other, share their pain and pleasure as husband, wife, and children. Functions of the family are legal sexuality between spouses, economic activities, educational activities, religious rites, recreation, and procreation. The sexual facet is based on the datum that marriage validates the erotic association between two members (or men and one or more women”) committed to each other. When sexual needs are not fully met it increases the possibility of EMA. Economic activities are done for the provisions of the children by the parents. Children expect that their material needs such as; house, clothing, and food will be provided by the parents. Education of the children is also the responsibility of the family(Stone, 1979)
2.8. Family disruption: (Familial Pandemonium)
Married couples are bound to respect the marriage contract and thus are required to live together in peace and complete harmony. They are expected to remain faithful to each other and remain functional in every material activity. Husbands and wives should observe their rights and responsibilities associated with marriage. But most of the marriages do not run smoothly. Mutual understanding, communication, harmony and respect for their relation between husband and wife do not exist or cease to exist due to the infidelity of either spouse.Consequently the family unit becomes unstable and breaks(Lundberg & Pollak, 1996). The signs of family disruption are intra marital relation include irritation, quarrels, confusion, commotion, conflicts, and disagreeableness between the spouses.
Family instability is the disruption and deterioration of the family unit or fracture of social role when one or more or more members do not perform their familial roles or duties.Family instability is a serious issue that leads to couples to appease their sexual desires outside the bounds of marriage. This indulgence in EMA proves fatal for the betrayer since the chances of their catching venereal diseases increase greatly and they have to spend a lot of money on treatment or in cases even their life ends up(Thornton, 1989).
Extramarital affair or behavior is one of the major causes of family instability. There have been the cultural differences, socioeconomic differences, and interests, age-related differences intra marital differences but EMA is at the root of family disruption.Family instability has adverse effects on the children, the cheated spouses the cheater and their kin. Everyone in unstable family is vulnerable to mental stress, aggression, and queer behavior. Almost all the members’ exhibit negative and despicable attitude and feel rejected and debilitated. (Ackerman, 1971).
This chapter describes the procedure adopted in this study. it includes research design, population, sample and sampling technique, an instrument for collecting data, validation (validity) and reliability of the instrument and technique of data analysis.
3.1. Design of study:
The main purpose of the study was to discover the various types of EMA and their influences on the family as a whole so; there was a need to determine the nature of the linkage between these two types of variables. Namely, the independent variables of the type of extramarital affairs and dependent variables of the influences on the family (family disruption) In that the correlational survey design was considered as the suitable one. This design establishes the relationship between two or more variable in relation to the population.
This research design was also selected on the base of other reason that it would provide the researcher with the opportunity of sampling the opinions of a number of respondents who would be significant among the population to decide whether a relationship exists between the types of (EMA)and family disruption or instability.Whether the forms or types of EMA stemmed from gender, age, economic and social psychological intra -marital factors and whether the cheater, he cheated and children are affected by EMA(Jane sick, 1994).
3.2. Area of Population:
The target population of study comprising of 1000 married people belonging to three different professions. That is education, law and medicine. The respondents whose profession was education were working in private and public sectors colleges situated on the Boson Road Multan; (starting from 9 number Chungi) and ending at Chungi no. 6). The respondents belonging medical profession were accessed at hospitals located on the Khanewal Multan road, along with the Shershah and the doctors working in Nishter Medical College Multan.Both the married men and women were given equal importance regardless of their respective profession.
3.3. Sample and Sampling Technique
. The sample of the study consisted of 120 well-educated respondents of both sexes belonging to three different professions; namely, teaching, law and medicine. The sample included sixty male and female teachers of government and private colleges situated along the Boson Road Multan; thirty male and female lawyers from city courts and high court Multan and thirty male and female doctors working in different hospitals of city Multan. A random sampling technique was adopted for the selection of an equal number of male and female respondents from each group of the target population. All the three types of respondents were given equal importance without any regard of their professions.
3.4. An instrument for Data collection:
The instrument used for the collection of data was the questionnaire titled: Extramarital affairs and Family Disruption (EAFDQ). The questionnaire was formulated by the researcher personally on the basis of the background knowledge of EMA and relevant existing literature review
The EAFDQ comprises of three parts. Part A is meant to elicit information on the demography of the respondents such as; gender, age, and span of marriage. Part B consists of 60 items/statements divided into three packages; package 1 contained 20 (1-20) items/statements which extracted information on the types manifestation f EMA occur among married people on the base of gender, and span of marriage.
The package 2 contained in 20 items/statements (21-40) which had been constructed to get information from the respondents on the basis of different factors causing EMA and the package 3 also comprised of 20 items (41 -60) related to the family disruption. This package was to collect information about the effects of EMA on the spouse’s children and the family as a whole.
All the items/statements contained in all the three packages were placed on the five points Lickert rating scale that is; SA, A, UD, DA, and SD [weighted (5, 4, 3, 2, 1)]
3.5. The validity of the instrument:
The EAFDQ was given the two experts for its face validation. These experts belong to the department of sociology and psychology from the faculty of Social Sciences University f BZU Multan. They were requested to evaluate and examine the instrument (EAFDQ) to decide what items/statements were related to the purpose of the study, research question and the null hypothesis formulated to prove the statement of the problem. The experts were also requested to suggest changes or modification of items where necessary. They restructured some of the items were not according to the nature of study and expectations(Merriam, 1998).
3.6. Reliability of the Instrument:
To ensure whether the instrument was reliable or not, it was a trial-tested by distributing 25 copies of EAFDQ to 25 married people living in the Shah Rukn -e- Alam colony situated out of the selected area of the study of (population). The data collected were subjected to Cronbach’s Alpha test to determine the internal consistency of the items in the EAFDQ. The reason behind the Cronbach’s Alpha test was that items of the instrument were not meant to dichotomous score, i.e., right or wrong but items were placed on the 5 points rating scale of SA.A.UD.PA.SD. The analysis of data using Cronbach’s Alpha statistics gave the Alpha coefficient the value for package 1-was .797, and for the package 2 equal to .789 and for the package 3 Cronbach’s Alpha value was .848. The overall estimated α value of the instrument was 812. This value of α ensures that the instrument was reliable to be administered for the study(Merriam, 1998).
3.7. Methods of data collection:
The data were collected using validated (EAFDQ). The researcher personally distributed the copies of EAFDQ to the respondents with the help to research assistants. The research assistant was properly advised and trained for the distribution and collection of copies of the questionnaire. They were also made known to be the sensitivity to the problem of research and social context where they would have to work (Merriam, 1998).
3.8. Analysis of the data
The data collected were analyzed using SPSS software. To find out the answer of the question 1 and 2 means rating and standard deviations of the package 1 and 2 were compared on the base of gender and span of marriage. ANOVA analysis for the package 1and 2 utilized to know the variance of the respondents’ mean rating. To get the answer to the third questions Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was used. The null hypotheses H01, H02 and H03 were tested using ANOVA, on the base of gender, ANOVA on the base of the span of marriage and to stage least squares regression analysis was done respectively.
4. DATA ANALYSIS
In this chapter of the paper result of data analysis are presented. The results are made keeping in view the research objectives and hypotheses formulated for the direction of the study. The results are shown in tables with regard to the questions and hypotheses. The major findings, discussions on the findings and conclusions are also contained in this chapter. The table of statistical relationship was formed having calculated correlation using the following manual formula of Pearson. The table of Regression analysis was imported from the SPSS-20 Software.
Q -1: What types or manifestations of extra-martial affair occurred among the married couples (men and women?)
Table 1: Mean ratings and SD of respondents on the types of EMA based on Gender.
Sr/n STATEMENTS/ITEMS(P-1) Male(Mn)=X1 SD1 Dec-01 Female
(Mn)=X2 SD2 Dec-02
1 Tendency to sexual variety & numeracy 3.72 .688 A 3.81 .647 A
2 ,Weak/Vulnerable matrimonial relations 3.78 .593 A 3.74 .706 A
3 Deep emotional entanglement with the person other than spouse i 3.85 .595 A 3.66 .760 A
4 Romantic love with the person other than the marriage partner 3.43 .886 DA 3.57 .773 A
5 Spending too much time with the individual other than a spouse 3.61 .802 A 3.74 .570 A
6 Seeking attention in a person other than legal partner 3.59 .909 A 3.71 .706 A
7 Oral sex, deep kissing, flirting are manifestations of EMA. 3.63 .711 A 3.55 .829 A
8 Sexual play, masturbation, visits to strip clubs. 3.71 .661 A 3.51 .811 A
9 Sexual fantasies about others may initiate EMA 3.63 .826 A 3.50 .812 DA
10 Cybersex, sexual images sharing, online dating 3.52 .781 A 3.59 .832 A
11 Retaliatory infidelity or sexual revenge 3.76 .822 A 3.56 .829 A
12 To do coitus with a person other than a spouse is worst kind infidelity 3,56 .810 A 3.57 .801 A
13 Receiving orgasm from other than marriage partner. 3.52 .913 A 3.53 .804 A
14 Polygamous or Polyandrous behavior is ema. 3.57 .910 A 3.62 .795 A
15 To adopt Extreme sexual behavior with others than wedded partners 3.55 .810 A 3.57 .801 A
16 Assertion of sexual prowess and dominance 3.53 .869 A 3.56 .853 A
17 Craving for spice of life and dalliances 3.80 .749 A 3.53 .776 A
18 Want of love, attention, care & caresses 3.65 .822 A 3.55 .775 A
19 Nagging persons other than spouse 3.50 .836 DA 3.47 .856 DA
20 Prolonged hugging and touching protected body parts. 3.54 .862 A 3.58 .925 A
68.90 .793 71.66 .782
PACKAGE MEAN 3.62 3.58
The figure on the tables 1 indicated the means and standard deviation of the male and female respondents on the types of EMA occur among the spouses. The results determine that the items one to twenty comprise of men and women means ratings. Among men’s means ratings, the items number 4 “romantic love with the persons other than spouses” and item no 19i.e. Nagging persons other than spouse have mean values smaller than the (set) standard means of 3.50. It implies that men or male respondents disagreed upon the item no 4 and the item no 19. It means men considered that neither the item no 4 “romantic love with persons other than spouse” and nor the item no 19 “nagging persons other than spouse” were the types of EMA.Likewise in the women mean ratings the item No 9 “sexual fantasies about others” and item No 19 “Nagging persons other spouses” are not the types of EMA.Since these items got mean ratings smaller than criterion means.( C.M =3.50).Hence the women differ in opinion on these items as being types of EMA. It can be inferred that men and women are agreed upon all the other items as being the types of EMA except the items mentioned above.
H01: There is no significant difference between the main ratings of male and female respondents on the types or kinds of extra-martial affairs occur among spouses.
ANOVA of P2(MARRIAGE SPAN)
Sum of Squares Df. Mean Square F Sig.
Equation 1 Regression 23.287 1 1.164 1.746 .013
Residual 48.002 92 .667
Total 71.288 93
Table 4: ANOVA of package- 2
There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of the respondents on the factors responsible for the occurrence of EMA among spouses on the base of the span of marriage. Table 4 indicates ANOVA result on the differences in mean ratings of the respondents on the type of EMA occurs among spouses based on the span of marriage. The result of ANOVA- test indicates that f- ratio of1.746 related with the significant value of 0.013 is smaller than p-value (p ≤ 0.05) fixed as the critical value. Hence the null hypothesis Ho2 is rejected. It can be said that mean rating of the respondents differ on perception of the factors causing EMA to happen among spouses based on span of marriage. The married people, having a span of marriage from 1 to 10 years, gave somewhat higher mean ratings; as can be seen in means and standard deviations table No. 3.
Table-5; Mean rating of male and female respondents on the effects of EMA on the family.
Serial No. Items / Statements Male (Mn)=Y1 Dec-01 Female
(Mn)=Y2 Dec-02 Y=
1 Breached trust and broken credence of the family 3.55 A 3.50 A 3.52
2 Rising of domestic violence and loss of self- esteem. 3.73 A 3.71 A 3.72
3 The vulnerability of cheater to STI’S and STD’S. 3.78 A 3.73 A 3.75
4 Betrayer and betrayed may use drugs 3.43 A 3.83 A 3.63
5 Cheater and cheated may develop mental and personality disorder 3.95 A 3. 53 A 3.74
6 Too much revelry of cheater robs him Sense of domestic responsibility 3.69 A 3.65 A 3.67
7 Betrayed spouse’s increased sense of rejection 3.76 A 3.70 A 3.73
8 Family faces social stigma 3.60 A 3.56 A 3.58
9 A cheated spouse may experience emotional trauma. 3.58 A 3.54 A 3.56
10 Children’s hatred and distrust in cheater parents 3.79 A 3.76 A 3.77
11 children may feel segregated from parents having ERI 3.67 A 3.71 A 3.69
12 children become disobedient to unfaithful parents 3.80 A 3.82 A 3.81
13 children may act out parents EMA in their own relation 3.36 A 3.87 A 3.61
14 Children learning ability may be affected 3.60 A 3.66 A 3.63
15 Marital dissociation or divorce 3.85 A 3.73 A 3.79
16 EMA increase Family debilitation and impracticality 3.57 A 3.87 A 3.72
17 EMA lower down the integrity of the family 3.76 A 3.64 A 3.70
18 Parents, brothers, sisters of the cheater are hurt. 3.74 A 3.56 A 3.65
19 Disinterestedness in family role 3.61 A 3.58 A 3.59
20 Daily commotion in the family over trifling and familial peace deterioration 3.50 A 3.55 A 3.52
The above table is formed just to get the values of Y-variables (EMA impacts on family or family disruption) which were used in the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficient r.
Q NO 3: What kind of relationship exists between the extra-martial affair of spouses and family disruption (as a whole)?. To answer question No. 3 about the nature of the relationship between the extramarital affairs(X-variables) and the family disruption(Y-variables), Pearson Correlation coefficient α was obtained using the values given in Table-5.s
Table 6: In this table values of X are taken as independent variables and that of Y as dependent
X1+X2/2=X Dependent variables
1 3.76 3.53 14.1376 12.4609 13.2728
2 3.76 3.69 14.1376 13.6161 13.8744
3 3.75 3.63 14.0625 13.1769 13.6125
4 3.51 3.61 12.3201 13.0321 12.6711
5 3.68 3.74 13.5424 13.9876 13.7632
6 3.67 3.71 13.4689 13.7641 13.6157
7 3.59 3.71 12.8881 13.7641 13.3189
8 3.6 3.57 12.96 12.7449 12.852
9 3.59 3.56 12.8881 12.6736 12.7804
10 3.54 3.71 12.5316 13.7641 13.1334
11 3.66 3.68 13.3956 13.5424 13.4688
12 3.54 3.8 12.5316 14.44 13.452
13 3.49 3.6 12.1801 12.96 12.564
14 3.59 3.67 12.8881 13.4689 13.1753
15 3.54 3.78 12.5316 14.2884 13.3812
16 3.48 3.72 12.1104 13.8384 12.1456
17 3.67 3.7 13.4689 13.69 13.579
18 3.6 3.66 12.96 13.3956 13.176
19 3.51 3.58 12.3201 12.8164 12.5658
20 3.47 3.61 12.0409 13.0321 12.234
∑Y=73.26 ∑X2=259.3642 ∑Y2=268.4566
Now putting the respective values in the Pearson correlation coefficient formula we got r= 0.4546. The value of P is calculated as under p= r/N-2 ie P =0.4546/20-2 Hence P= 0.025 t = r √ N-2/1-r2 i e t = .04546 √ 20-2/0.2066 ﺤ t =2.16
Note: The values of X and Y used in calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) have been taken from Table 5. Table 5 has been formed by taking collected mean for each item of package-1.ie x1+x2/2. and y = y1 +y2 / 2 were obtained from a package-3.The number of ordered pairs (X, Y) is 20. So, N = 20. The values of t and p have also been calculated using manual formulas as shown above
Table-7 Pearson correlation Analysis
VARIABLES Pearson Correlation Y=Dependent Variables X=Independent Variable
Dependent Variable.(Family Disruption) Correlation 1.000 0.4546
Significance (2-tailed) .025
df. N 18 20
Independent Variable(Types of extramarital Affairs) Correlation 0.4546 1.000
Significance (2-tailed) .025
N df. . 20 18
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
From the table- 7 r or α= 0.4546 at a significant level of 0.025.The significant value 0.025 is smaller than the critical value of p (p ≤ 0.05). So, it follows that there exists a straight positive relationship between the set of variables i.e. independent variable (types/manifestations extramarital affairs) and dependent variables (family disruption). The null hypothesis is rejected. Therefore, it can safely be concluded that there exists a significant relationship between the variables. The value of t obtained is 2.165. For df 18 the critical value of t is 1.86. The value of t=2.165 is greater than 1.86, it implies that there is a remarkable and positive statistical relationship between the Independent variable of manifestation of EMA and the dependent variable of family disruption or deterioration. The determination value of r2 is equal to 0.2066. It means that about 20% of family disruption caused by extramarital affairs and 80% family instability caused by other factors
H03: There is no significant relationship between different type or manifestations extramarital affairs and family disruption.
Table 8: Regression analysis of packages- 3 on the base of the span of marriage (2sls)
Model -1 Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Regression .813 2 .813 4.721 .040
Residual 3.962 91 .172
Total 4.775 93
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) 3.084 .715 4.313 .000
Independent .394 .181 .413 2.173 .040
a.Dependent variable b. Independent variable
In order to re-test hypothesis H03 two stages least square regression analysis was done. The results in the regression table 8 represent that the value of f-ratio is equal to 4.721. This value is associated with a probability value of 0.040 which is smaller than the critical value of p (p ≤ 0.05). It implies that the result is significant. Therefore hypothesis H03 is rejected. Hence there is a significant relationship between the variables. Moreover, t- ratio 4.313 is linked with the probability values 0.000 which is smaller than 0.050 as critical value of p. So, the null hypothesis H03 stands refuted. It means that there is a significant statistical relationship between the variables of, ‘types of Extramarital Affairs’ and ‘Family Disruption’.
Almost all types of EMA occur among spouses since all the male and female respondents perceived that the items or statements in the package No -1 as being the types or manifestations of extramarital affairs except, the item no 4 “romantic love with persons other than spouse” and the item no 19 “nagging persons other than spouse” (these items are not considered to be the types of EMA according to the respondents’ opinions)The spouses in the study area turn to EMA in spite of different marital span. The people having marriage span from 1 to 10 years are more likely to fall a prey to extramarital affairs. There exist a straight positive relationship between EMA and family disruption with r-value of 0.483 and R =0, 20. It means that EMA affects the marital life of the spouses and family set up, up to 20%. It implies that 80 % would be the other factors that affect martial life and family. Romantic love with the persons other than spouse and nagging persons other than a spouse are not types or manifestations of extramarital affairs. Therefore, the person who enacts these two activities is not said to be a betrayer. According to the respondents all the items given in the package-2 are considered as the factors responsible for initiating extramarital affairs among the married people except the items “Early marriages create non-adaptive marital behavior” and “Cultivation of ardent desire of being demanded and sought after” in regard to the mean ratings of the respondents based on the span of marriage.
The types or manifestations of extramarital affairs occur among spouses.
The research question one is about the types and manifestations of EMA.As regards this question the people responded that romantic love with the person other than spouses, nagging persons other than spouse and sexual fantasies about others beyond marriage, are not the types or the manifestations of EMA. The ANOVA analysis of the types or manifestations of EMA happen among the spouses on the base of the gender indicated that there was a significant difference among the respondents on the types or forms of EMA. The men’s rating was marginally higher than that of women. However, both the male and female respondents agreed upon an equal number of items and disagreed upon two items each.
Factors accounting for the occurrence of EMA among married people (spouses).
The result of in the tables three show that the statements: early marriages and cultivation of ardent desire of being demanded and sought after are not the factors accounting for EMA and all the rest of the items such as; lack of favourable communication between the spouses, emotionally detached marriages ,incomplete several desires of spouses social, cultural and situational condonment for affairs, personal finances culturally different spouses and great gap in ages of the spouses can cause the occurrence of extramarital affairs among the married people. These factors can be categorized as; psychological, social, economic, cultural and personal factors.More or less every factor can cause to start extramarital affairs among the married couples. However, the findings showed that married people in the study area perceived these factors differently on the base of gender. The span of marital life of the respondents also influences their perception of the factors responsible for the extramarital affairs.
4.2.1. The relationship between EMA and family- disruption
The findings on the statements 1-20 included in the package- 1 and the items 41-60 in packages-3 were put to use in finding the answer to the question 3. The items 1- 20 were used as independent variables and the items 41- 60 were set as dependent variables. The finding on the base of the results shown in table 5 the Pearson correlation indicate that there exists a straight positive relationship between the two variables, namely; types of extramarital affairs and impacts on family (family disruption) the value of Pearson coefficient α is equal to .483 indicates rather a strong linkage between types of extramarital affairs and family disruption. The square of Alpha (0.20) suggests that 20% of marriages or family may be disrupted because of extramarital affairs. The regression analysis of the variables of package – 1 and package – 3 also supplemented the results of Pearson correlation analysis.
Hence the findings show that the spouses’ involvement in extramarital affairs exerts disruptive impacts on the betrayer, the betrayed, children and other members of the family. The results of the regression analysis table confirmed findings of the correlation table.
The following conclusions are drawn from the main findings;
On the bases of the major findings of the study, it can safely be said that obnoxious activities of extramarital affairs are being carried out in our country though stealthily and illicitly. The extramarital affairs adversely affect the matrimonial relationships and functionality of the family as a whole.Moreover each type of extramarital affairs happens among the spouses with a slightly varying degree. The inclination to sexual variety and socioeconomic factors are the major causes of happening of extramarital affairs as the items related to these got more ratings than the other items describing the manifestations of extramarital affairs. In brief, it can be concluded that;
(1) With a few exceptions, all the type or manifestations of extramarital affairs occur among the spouses.
(2) The spouses residing in the study areas may involve in EMA at any stage of the martial span. However, the rate of involvement of men in EMA is slightly greater than that of women as the mean ratings and standard deviation tables show.
(3) The possibility of the occurrence of extramarital affairs among the spouses whose span of marriage is between one to ten years is greater than the married people whose span of marriages are eleven to twenty or twenty-one to thirty years.
(4) The positive straight relationship that exists between EMA and family disruption has proved that extramarital affairs destabilize family setup affecting everyone in the family. Extramarital Affairs can cause depression anxiety and other mental disorder among the spouses as well as the children. The involvement in EMA robs the spouses of their matrimonial bliss. Last but not least, that more or less all types of Extramarital Affairs are being occurred among the spouses in our own country; The Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
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This research article is written by Ambreen Fatima R/O 105/15.L .Wanjari. Mianchannu. E. mail. firstname.lastname@example.org